You did everything correctly; cleaned, sanded, then primed. It might be a problem with the Valspar paint. Was the paint very thick/sticky or not well stirred? Unfortunately there is no way to know for sure if it is the paint or something else.
The only other idea I can think of is;
Maybe the primer wasn't completely dry when you applied the paint. Wiping down the cabinet with paint thinner would slow down the drying process of the primer. This could cause a reaction similar to what you describe. The only solution is to wait a few days and allow everything to dry/cure then apply another coat of paint.