Not much. Basically, there are several types of resins used in water based paints that act as binders. All of these resins are synthetic, including latex. Almost all modern water based paints use acrylic resins even those that say latex. It is possible some paints are still using some of the old time cheaper latex resins.
Nowadays the term latex just applies to a water based paint. If your ever interested you can look at the label on the paint can. This label contains a list of ingredients. You can also check the manufactures website or ask the sales person for the MSDS sheet (material safety data sheet), they are legally bound to provide this. This sheet will have a lot of good info.