This is a major bummer. First, give the paint a couple of weeks to see if it will bond. The bond between a surface and the paint increases as the paint cures. Curing takes 3-4 weeks, typically. Plus a gloss cures slowly.
If there is no or little bond then yes you will need to remove the new paint, sand the surface then prime it before applying a finish paint. It might be best to take the bed apart and do some of this out side.